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CPD modules: A&P

You are free to download, print and study the modules. Once you have completed your reading come back and take the multi-choice test. If you obtain a pass mark of over 80% you will have the option of printing out a certificate of completion.

Understanding the circle system 

Although the circle system looks relatively simple, it is a deceptively complex arrangement that needs to be fully understood to use safely, especially at low flows.
This module explains the components, setup and both advantages and disadvantages of the circle system.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Apnoea & Pre-oxygenation

Pre-oxygenation is used in anaesthesia to prolong the time to desaturation during a period of apnoea, such as frequently happens upon induction. This can also be thought of a denitogenation. This article covers the science behind it and discusses some patient groups that need special attention.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Understanding & Establishing Intraosseous Access

Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative method to providing venous administration of drugs and fluids. Commonly used by the military and pre-hospital medics,it is gaining popularity in the hospital setting where intravenous access is challenging or time critical.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Easy

COPD and Anaesthesia

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly encountered respiratory disorder. Patients with COPD pose a challenge to the anaesthetist because intraoperative and postoperative complications occur more commonly than in those without the disease, and can lead to prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. This module provides an overview of COPD and discusses implications for the anaesthetic management of patients with the disease.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty Medium

Tracheostomy fundamentals

Tracheostomies are becoming more common and the consequences of a misplaced tube can be serious so a good understanding of them is essential.
Length of Study: 90 min
Difficulty: Medium

Proact Laryngeal Airways (sponsored)

Proact have a full range of PRO-Breathe Laryngeal Airways. These include the Disposable PVC, Disposable Armourflex™ PVC and high quality silicone disposable Laryngeal Airways.

Paediatric Anaesthetic Emergencies: Pt 2

Paediatric anaesthetic emergencies can happen faster and leave less time to react the in adults. They present complex, potentially life-threatening situations that everyone engaged in giving paediatric anaesthetic should be aware of and be able to treat.This second article covers malignant hyperthermia and anaphylaxis.
Length of Study   50min
Difficulty: Medium

Nerve Impulse Conduction

It is essential that perioperative practitioners have an understanding of nerve conduction, as many drugs used in the operating theatre have an impact on the nervous system and nerve conduction. The most obvious, but not the only one, being local anaesthetics which prevent pain and other nerve signals reaching the brain, by temporarily blocking nerve conduction.
This module examines how nerve cells communicate by sending signals to each other and various other tissues throughout the body. It is a simplified explanation of a complex topic.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student


Understanding local anaesthetics

This module discusses the pharmacology of local anaesthetic agents and then briefly describes the various additives that can be used with these agents.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

Predicting difficult airways

Proper airway assessment is essential and takes less than 2 minutes. This can give an indication of a potential difficult airway. This modules covers whats involved and what to look for.
Length of Study: 60 min. 
Difficulty: Easy

Urea & Electrolytes: a review

Urea and electrolytes (U&Es) are the most frequently requested biochemistry tests. They provide useful information about several aspects of health, such as the volume of blood and its pH. The most important aspect of U&Es is what they tell us about kidney functioning.
Length of Study: 50 min
Difficulty: Easy

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease is a disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal haemoglobin. The abnormal haemoglobin causes distorted (sickled) red blood cells. When the number of red blood cells decreases from rupture (haemolysis), anaemia is the result. The irregular sickled cells can also block blood vessels causing tissue and organ damage and pain.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

This module explains how to do a simple easy to understand arterial blood gas analysis. How to use the 5-step approach to analyse arterial blood gas results as well as explaining how respiration and metabolism are linked and how this effects the results.
Length of study:  90 min
Difficulty: Difficult

Rapid Sequence Induction

Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a method of achieving rapid control of the airway whilst minimising the risk of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. This module covers RSI, its indications and contraindications.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Suxamethonium Apnoea

This module describes the action of suxamethonium, the inheritance of suxamethonium apnoea, and the non-inherited conditions that can also cause it. The presentation and treatment of the condition are discussed.
Length of Study: 45 min
Difficulty: Easy

An introduction to the autonomic nervous system

As many procedures and drugs used in anaesthetic practice have a direct influence on the autonomic nervous system, it is essential that the anaesthetic assistant should have an understanding of its structure and function although this is a very simplified introduction of a large and complex topic.

Length of Study: 80 min.
Difficulty: Medium

Perioperative Hypothermia

Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia can occur in up to 40% of surgical patients so it essential for theatre practitioners to know what causes it and how to prevent it.
A well as being very stressful and uncomfortable for patients upon waking, it has many negative consequences including delayed drug metabolism, wound healing and increased infection rates.

Length of Study: 75 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Local Anaesthetic Systemic Toxicity

Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity is rare but when it does occur its onset may be sudden and life-threatening so it is prudent to spend time preventing rather than treating it. All theatre staff should be aware of the doses limits of local anaesthetics they use as well as the causes, signs and treatment of LAST.
Length of Study: 50 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Cardiac Tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is a life-threatening emergency that impairs the ability of the heart to fill and to pump. Although not strictly a perioperative condition it is something that all advanced life support responders should be aware of.
Length of Study: 90 min
Difficulty: Difficult



Anaesthesia for the patient with a cardiac transplant

For patients who have previously received a cardiac transplant, coming to theatre for non-related surgery is no longer unusual as survival times continue to increase for transplant recipients. With altered physiology, and the effects of long term anti-rejection drugs use, their anaesthetic requirements are more complicated and it is essential to know what works and what doesn’t.
Length of Study  60 min
Difficulty: Medium