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Recent modules: ordered by date

You are free to download, print and study the modules. Once you have completed your reading come back and take the multichoice test. If you obtain a pass mark of over 80% you will have the option of printing out a certificate of completion.

Anaesthetics for obese patients

The prevalence of obesity has tripled over the past 40 yrs and there are now more than 650 million obese adults worldwide. This article offers an update of the perioperative risk and the associated morbidity that obesity causes and its impact on anaesthetic management.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium
   

Safe tracheal extubation

This article covers complications occurring during emergence, extubation and later in recovery. It details the DAS guidelines on safe extubation and explains the factors that increase the risks of
adverse events. It also describes how to optimise conditions before tracheal extubation.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium
   

Understanding the circle system 

Although the circle system looks relatively simple, it is a deceptively complex arrangement that needs to be fully understood to use safely, especially at low flows.
This module explains the components, setup and both advantages and disadvantages of the circle system.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Easy
   

An introduction to Pain Pathways

This module provides a basic overview of the important pain pathways and how they work. It also covers how pain can be modulated at different levels along the pathway. It gives a simplified view of a very complex topic.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Difficult
   

The respiratory system – The process of respiration

This module covers the physiological process of respiration, of which breathing is only the first stage. The ultimate function of the respiratory system is gas exchange which consists of supplying the body’s tissues with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide, the waste product.

There are three key elements to this process; pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

  

Malignant Hyperthermia

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare life-threatening condition that is usually triggered by exposure to certain drugs used for general anesthesia. This module reviews malignant hyperthermia, its clinical features and presentations as well as its management during an MH crisis.

This module is largely based on the ‘Malignant hyperthermia 2020 Guidelines’ from the Association of Anaesthetists.

Length of Study: 120 min.
Difficulty: Medium
   

Direct vision laryngoscopes

Laryngoscopes are used to aid tracheal intubation and the placement of endotracheal tubes. They allow visualisation of the larynx and are used not only in operating theatres but ITU and A&E. They can also be used to visualise the larynx for suctioning, removal of a foreign body and placing nasogastric tubes and throat packs.
This module covers conventional or direct laryngoscopes. Video laryngoscopes and fibreoptic intubation are covered in different modules.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

   

Anaesthetic machines back to front

The most important piece of equipment that the anaesthetist uses is the anaesthesia machine. The basic function of an anaesthesia machine is to prepare a gas mixture of precisely known, but variable composition. The gas mixture can then be delivered to a breathing system. The anaesthesic machine itself has evolved from a simple pneumatic device to a complex array of mechanical, electrical and computer–controlled components. This module breaks down the essential features of the anaesthetic machine into its parts, explaining their purpose as it goes.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

  

Understanding Central Venous Lines

This module discusses various types of central lines and central venous catheters (CVC).  They are often needed in critically ill patients or in those requiring prolonged intravenous therapies that cannot be given orally or through peripheral lines.

Length of Study: 120 min.
Difficulty: Medium
   

 

Metal Max COMBI 50 Disposable Laryngoscope Blade & Handle (sponsored)

The Combi is a one piece system with Blade and Handle fixed together allowing Test in the Bag functionality testing prior to use. It is based on a Conventional system with meLED™ (metal enclosed) LED on the blade powered by a preloaded 6V battery handle giving excellent light output when and where it is required.

Getting the best out of videolaryngoscopy

The benefits of videolaryngoscopy, especially in unexpected difficult intubations, are numerous but they are not just conventional laryngoscopes with screens. Many have different techniques and need specific training. This module gives tips on how it to use it to its best advantage.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Easy
   

Muscle Relaxants; reversal and the use of peripheral nerve stimulators.

This module discusses residual block, why, when and how muscle relaxants are reversed, and the importance of using a peripheral nerve stimulator when assessing the depth of block. It also covers the different patterns the stimulators use to assess how deep a neuromuscular block is.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium
   

 

Emergency front of neck access in airway management

This module describes the guidance for emergency front of neck access, reviews techniques to improve decision making in the transition to eFONA and reviews the  ‘scapel, bougie,
tube’ technique when performing eFONA.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Easy
   

Endotracheal tubes

An endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted into the trachea for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a definitive patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is the gold standard for securing an airway, allowing positive-pressure ventilation while preventing contamination of the lungs from the contents of the pharynx and stomach.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

The respiratory system – Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System

This module covers the anatomy of the respiratory system. The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. It covers both the conducting zone and a respiratory zone and describes the difference between the two.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

  

Supraglottic Airway Devices

First introduced in 1988 the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)  or supraglottic airway is now used in over 50% of anaesthetics in the U.K. This module describes the development and use of not only the LMA but the variants of it. This includes 2nd generation supraglottic airway.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

   

Airway adjuncts and intubation aids

Airway adjuncts are designed to increase the success rate of basic airway manoeuvres, help maintain spontaneous respiration or ensuring successful bag-mask ventilation. Intubation aids are used to help the passing of an endotracheal tube through the cords rather than to help with laryngoscopy.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student

Nonin 9590 Onyx Vantage Finger Pulse Oximeter – Proact (sponsored)

When you need to make decisions quickly, you do not have time to question the accuracy of your finger pulse oximeter. You can trust Nonin Medical’s Onyx® Vantage finger pulse oximeter with PureSAT® technology to quickly and accurately capture SpO2 and pulse rate measurements — even on patients where motion and low perfusion are a challenge. In fact, Onyx is the only finger pulse oximeter brand whose accuracy and performance claims are supported by published peer-reviewed, clinical studies.

Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents

This module discusses aspiration which is a relatively rare, but potentially fatal complication of general anaesthesia occurring most commonly in emergency patients. Prevention is the key, and there are several mandatory requirements that must be fulfilled in the at-risk patient. However, in the event of aspiration occurring, treatment is essentially supportive once the airway has been secured.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Easy
   

Perioperative Hypothermia

Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia can occur in up to 40% of surgical patients so it essential for theatre practitioners to know what causes it and how to prevent it.
A well as being very stressful and uncomfortable for patients upon waking, it has many negative consequences including delayed drug metabolism, wound healing and increased infection rates.

Length of Study: 75 min.
Difficulty: Easy