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CPD modules: Pharmacology

You are free to download, print and study the modules. Once you have completed your reading come back and take the multichoice test. If you obtain a pass mark of over 80% you will have the option of printing out a certificate of completion.

Postoperative Nausea & Vomiting

PONV can be common after surgery, although some patient groups are more prone to this than others. This module discusses this and what is the most effective and appropriate treatment for PONV.
Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Anaesthesia for the patient with a cardiac transplant

For patients who have previously received a cardiac transplant, coming to theatre for non-related surgery is no longer unusual as survival times continue to increase for transplant recipients. With altered physiology, and the effects of long term anti-rejection drugs use, their anaesthetic requirements are more complicated and it is essential to know what works and what doesn’t.
Length of Study  60 min
Difficulty: Medium

Sugammadex: an overview

Sugammadex is an effective and safe agent for reversing neuromuscular blockade, in particular all depths of rocuronium-induced blockade. Sugammadex provides a real alternative to neostigmine and this module covers everything you need to know.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications that relieve or reduce pain. Their actions are analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.
Perioperatively, using NSAIDs avoids many of the adverse effects of opioids such as respiratory depression, sedation, nausea and vomiting and gastrointestinal stasis. Although an effective analgesic they have significant adverse effects and contraindications which the perioperative practitioner must be aware of.

Length of Study: 80 min.
Difficulty: Medium

Spinal Anaesthesia

Spinal anaesthetic, also known as a spinal block, is administered by injecting local anaesthetic, into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) just below the end of the spinal cord. This has the effect of blocking the conduction of nerve impulses, including pain signals to the brain. Spinal anaesthesia can be used as the sole anaesthetic or in combination with sedation or general anaesthetic.
This module will discuss the relevant anatomy, techniques, and management of spinal anaesthesia.
Length of Study: 90 min
Difficulty: Medium

Proact Combi™ Laryngoscope (Sponsored)

Invented by PROACT in 2010, the Combi™ Laryngoscope concept provides an all-in-one Laryngoscope set with a pre-fitted PERMANENTLY attached blade and preloaded 6V Battery Pack.

Pre-eclampsia and Anaesthetics

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterised by high blood pressure and signs of damage to another organ system, often the kidneys. Left untreated, pre-eclampsia can lead to serious even fatal complications for both mother and baby and the only cure is delivery.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Paediatric Pain

Good quality, effective management of pain in paediatric patients is an essential component of paediatric anaesthesia. However, achieving this can be difficult for a variety of reasons not least of which is the enormous variations that occur physiologically and psychologically throughout the range of ages encountered in the paediatric population.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

An introduction to acute pain assessment

Acute pain can be described as that which occurs as the consequence of injury or disease and resolves with healing. Acute pain is encountered in a wide variety of clinical situations, including post-operative patients. This module discusses why pain management is important and pain assessment tools.

Length of Study: 45 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Inhalation (gas) Induction

This module covers inhalation or gas induction. Although it is routine to induce general anaesthesia by the intravenous (IV) route, the inhalational route remains an acceptable method and is preferred in certain circumstances.
Length of Study: 60 min. 
Difficulty: Medium

Understanding vaporisers

This updated module explains how modern anaesthetic vaporisers work and the principles behind them. It includes electronic and direct injection vaporisers.
Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium

Ketamine in anaesthetic practice

Ketamine is the only anaesthetic available which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnesic effects. When used correctly it is a very useful and versatile drug.
Length of Study: 45 min
Difficulty: Easy

Understanding local anaesthetics

This module discusses the pharmacology of local anaesthetic agents and then briefly describes the various additives that can be used with these agents.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

General anaesthesia in obstetrics

Major advances in obstetric anesthesia have resulted in improved maternal outcomes but the failure rate is still higher than in non-obstetric anaesthetics. The consequences of a failed intubation in the obstetric patient may not only affect the mother, but also the fetus. This article gives an overview of how to conduct a GA in obstetrics safely and safely manage a failed intubation to ensure a good outcome. It contains guidance to the  OAA/DAS Obstetric Airway Guidelines.

Length of Study: 75 min.
Difficulty: Medium

Peri-operative Management of Patients on Strong Opioids

It is very common to encounter patients on strong opioid medication. These patients present particularly challenging pain management difficulties in the peri-operative period due to behavioural, psychological and pharmacological consequences of opioid treatment. This module discusses the key concepts in the anaesthetic management of patients taking strong opioids and steps that can be taken to ensure optimum peri-operative care.
Length of Study: 80 min
Difficulty: Medium

Proact Creative™ PC-3000 Vital Signs Monitor (sponsored)

The Creative PC-3000 Multi Parameter Monitor is an ideal way of tracking the condition of the patient due to the clear and visual display and multiple readings. This patient monitor has easy readings and a long-lasting battery, making it suitable for constant use in a hospital/medical environment.

Nerve Impulse Conduction

It is essential that perioperative practitioners have an understanding of nerve conduction, as many drugs used in the operating theatre have an impact on the nervous system and nerve conduction. The most obvious, but not the only one, being local anaesthetics which prevent pain and other nerve signals reaching the brain, by temporarily blocking nerve conduction.
This module examines how nerve cells communicate by sending signals to each other and various other tissues throughout the body. It is a simplified explanation of a complex topic.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Beginner/student


Diabetes & Anaesthetic Management

This module covers the affect of diabetes on the surgical patient and why intraoperative blood glucose control and frequent measurement of blood glucose and serum potassium are key to safe practice.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

Morphine – Still the gold standard

Still popular and widely used. This brief module reviews the basics of morphine, its uses, side effects and doses.
Length of Study: 30 min
Difficulty: Easy

Bronchospasm during general anaesthesia

Bronchospasm is a relatively common event during general anaesthesia. Anaesthetic assistants need to know how to identify and treat bronchospasm. Management begins with switching to 100% oxygen and calling for help early. Increasing the inspired concentration of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane will produce bronchodilatation and is a good start.

Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium