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CPD modules: Pharmacology

You are free to download, print and study the modules. Once you have completed your reading come back and take the multichoice test. If you obtain a pass mark of over 80% you will have the option of printing out a certificate of completion.

Understanding vaporisers

This updated module explains how modern anaesthetic vaporisers work and the principles behind them. It includes electronic and direct injection vaporisers.
Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Medium

Peri-operative Management of Patients on Strong Opioids

It is very common to encounter patients on strong opioid medication. These patients present particularly challenging pain management difficulties in the peri-operative period due to behavioural, psychological and pharmacological consequences of opioid treatment. This module discusses the key concepts in the anaesthetic management of patients taking strong opioids and steps that can be taken to ensure optimum peri-operative care.
Length of Study: 80 min
Difficulty: Medium

Diabetes & Anaesthetic Management

This module covers the affect of diabetes on the surgical patient and why intraoperative blood glucose control and frequent measurement of blood glucose and serum potassium are key to safe practice.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

Anaesthesia for the patient with a cardiac transplant

For patients who have previously received a cardiac transplant, coming to theatre for non-related surgery is no longer unusual as survival times continue to increase for transplant recipients. With altered physiology, and the effects of long term anti-rejection drugs use, their anaesthetic requirements are more complicated and it is essential to know what works and what doesn’t.
Length of Study  60 min
Difficulty: Medium

Morphine – Still the gold standard

Still popular and widely used. This brief module reviews the basics of morphine, its uses, side effects and doses.
Length of Study: 30 min
Difficulty: Easy

Inhalation (gas) Induction

This module covers inhalation or gas induction. Although it is routine to induce general anaesthesia by the intravenous (IV) route, the inhalational route remains an acceptable method and is preferred in certain circumstances.
Length of Study: 60 min. 
Difficulty: Medium

Ketamine in anaesthetic practice

Ketamine is the only anaesthetic available which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnesic effects. When used correctly it is a very useful and versatile drug.
Length of Study: 45 min
Difficulty: Easy

Proact Creative™ PC-3000 Vital Signs Monitor (sponsored)

The Creative PC-3000 Multi Parameter Monitor is an ideal way of tracking the condition of the patient due to the clear and visual display and multiple readings. This patient monitor has easy readings and a long-lasting battery, making it suitable for constant use in a hospital/medical environment..

Local Anaesthetic Systemic Toxicity

Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity is rare but when it does occur its onset may be sudden and life-threatening so it is prudent to spend time preventing rather than treating it. All theatre staff should be aware of the doses limits of local anaesthetics they use as well as the causes, signs and treatment of LAST.
Length of Study: 50 min.
Difficulty: Easy
   

Postoperative Nausea & Vomiting

PONV can be common after surgery, although some patient groups are more prone to this than others. This module discusses this and what is the most effective and appropriate treatment for PONV.
Length of Study: 60 min.
Difficulty: Easy

Pre-eclampsia and Anaesthetics

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterised by high blood pressure and signs of damage to another organ system, often the kidneys. Left untreated, pre-eclampsia can lead to serious even fatal complications for both mother and baby and the only cure is delivery.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Management of Major Obstetric Haemorrhage

Major obstetric haemorrhage is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and the recognition of major obstetric haemorrhage can be challenging. This module discusses it causes, symptoms and importantly anaesthetic management of cases.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

Understanding local anaesthetics

This module discusses the pharmacology of local anaesthetic agents and then briefly describes the various additives that can be used with these agents.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

I.V. Induction Agents

I.V. induction agents are some of the most commonly used drugs in anaesthetics. This modules shows how and where they work. It then goes to review the most common I.V. induction agents and their effects on the body.
Length of Study: 75 min
Difficulty: Medium

Muscle Relaxants: the fundamentals

The introduction of neuromuscular blocking drugs revolutionised the practice of anaesthesia. Before the advent of muscle relaxants, anaesthesia was induced and maintained by intravenous or inhalation agents.
This comprehensive module covers all aspects of neuromuscular muscle relaxants.
Length of Study:  90 min
Difficulty: Medium

Paediatric Anaesthetic Emergencies: Pt I

Paediatric anaesthetic emergencies can happen faster and leave less time to react then in adults. They present complex, potentially life-threatening situations that everyone engaged in giving paediatric anaesthetic should be aware of and be able to treat.This first article covers laryngospasm and suxamethonium apnoea.
Length of Study: 50 min
Difficulty: Medium

Total Intravenous Anaesthesia

Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) is a technique of general anaesthesia which uses a combination of agents given exclusively by the intravenous route without the use of inhalation agents. This module explains how TIVA/TCI works, the popular models used and how they affect different patient groups.
Length of Study: 75 min. 
Difficulty: Medium

Sugammadex: an overview

Sugammadex is an effective and safe agent for reversing neuromuscular blockade, in particular all depths of rocuronium-induced blockade. Sugammadex provides a real alternative to neostigmine and this module covers everything you need to know.
Length of Study: 60 min
Difficulty: Easy

Malignant hyperthermia

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare life-threatening condition that is usually triggered by exposure to certain drugs used for general anesthesia. This module reviews malignant hyperthermia, its epidemiology, clinical features and presentations as well as its management during an MH crisis.
Length of Study: 90 min
Difficulty: Difficult

Suxamethonium Apnoea

This module describes the action of suxamethonium, the inheritance of suxamethonium apnoea, and the non-inherited conditions that can also cause it. The presentation and treatment of the condition are discussed.
Length of Study: 45 min
Difficulty: Easy

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